Education Resources

African Center Educations FAQ

FAQs About African Centered Education


Most Often Asked Questions About
African Center Educations




Answers Submitted to the Kansas City Missouri School Board by

Their African Centered Education Task Force





Question 1. What does African Centered Mean?


African centeredness is the placement of African American people and
students at the center of human process. This is based on the belief that
all humans have their physical, social and intellectual origins in Africa.


Question 2. What is African Centered Education?


African Centered Education places the African American student at the
center of the educational experience as a subject rather than an object.
This placement of the student at the center allows for an inclusionary
process which gives equal representation of all groups rather than one
group over or below any other group.


Question 3. How does African Centered Education differ from
Euro-centric Education?



With African Centered Education, the African American child is culturally
placed at the center of the learning process, whereas with Euro-centric
Education, they are culturally outside of the educational experience.


Question 4. What will my child learn?


African Centered Education is holistic, meaning that the student will be
involved in cross discipline learning, meeting state core curriculum goals
and guidelines, critical and creative thinking, self-concept development,
character development and moral education.


Question 5. What does African Centered Mean?


The African Centered School Implementation plan would be a Kindergarten
through 12th Grade articulation involving J.S. Chick and Ladd
Elementary, M.L. King, Jr. Middle School and Southeast High School.


Question 6. Will teachers and staff be retrained?


Yes, an African Centered training model will be developed to assure that
the instructional staff is competent in the delivery of African Centered
Education as well as the core curriculum.


Question 7. How will parents be involved?


Parents will be essential to the success of the African Centered Schools.
There is an African proverb that states: "It takes an entire village to
raise just one child." Parents will be partners of the village and will
work closely in the planning, decision-making, development and evaluation
of the African Centered Education model. The parents will help to develop
a Covenant of Excellency between the community and instructional staff.

Question 8. Why are some people against African Centered
Education?



Because of misinformation and misunderstanding about, "What African
Centered Education really is and what it is not."


Question 9. Will children learn more at an African Centered
School?



Yes. The African American student will be exposed to a world-view
experience that relates to all people, cultures, and traditions from the
context of their reality which will enhance their own self esteem, positive
self imaging and higher standard of educational excellence.


Question 10. Does African Centered Education teach
racism?



No! Racism is a power relation where one group is able to deny other
groups equity of power, based on the criteria of a superior race. African

entered Education is an inclusionary multicultural educational process
with emphasis on the African American experience that teaches all people
are equal.


Question 11. Why is African Centered Education needed?


Looking at the school system in America, Euro-centric education has failed
to meet the needs of African American students. There is a gap existing
between the test scores of black children and white children in the Kansas
City, Missouri School District. Contributing to this gap are low
expectations for African American students, the labeling number of African
American boys being placed in special education and behavior disorder
classes which places the students in an at-risk environment.
Additionally, the high drop-out rate across the country within urban
educational centers pinpoints the need for a more culturally appropriate
education thrust.


Question 12. Will students just learn about "black stuff" or
will they learn about other cultures and ethnic groups?


African Centered Education acknowledges the scientific fact that humanity
began in Africa. Therefore, African Centered Education is an approach which
celebrates the culture, heritage, contributions and traditions of all humans.


Question 13. What is Ma'at and the Nguzo Saba?


Ma'at is an ancient Kemetic concept. The Nguzo Saba is a term popularized
by Dr. Maulana Karenga. As used by the Ancient Africans, Ma'at was a
concept that stood for "universal order." Ma'at represents realty in all
its manifestations both spiritual and material. It is the divine force that
encompasses and embraces everything that is alive and exists. As an ethical
system, Ma'at is often discussed as seven cardinal virtues (truth, justice,
righteousness, harmony, balance, reciprocity, and order). As part of
Karenga's Kawaida philosophy, the Nguzo Saba are seven principles (Umoja,
Unity; Kujichagulia, Self-determination; Ujima, Cooperative Work and
Responsibility; Ujamaa, Collective Economics; Nia, Purpose; Kuumba,
Creativity; and Imani, Faith). The Nguzo Saba is most widely recognized in
relation to the seven days of Kwanzaa.


Question 14. What is the difference between African Centered
Education, African Studies and Afrocentricity?



Remember, African Centered Education is an educational experience, that
utilizes African and African American cultural and intellectual traditions
and processes in guiding the teaching and learning experience. It is both
the philosophy and the practice which guides the process of teaching and
learning. Afrocentricity is a special quality of thought and practice
which is rooted in the cultural image and interest of people of African
ancestry. It is a concept that guides the intellectual investigation and
understanding of reality. African studies is simply the designation given
to the body of studies primarily concerned with the experience of African
people. It is an academic discipline like Political Science or Economics.


Question 15. Does the African emphasis on spirituality
contradict, differ, or conflict with orthodox religion?



The short answer is no. The traditional African belief that everything is
spirit does not differ from the foundation of orthodox religion. In fact
the African belief in spirit allows for an appreciation and a respect for
every religious tradition. Often, people confuse the African recognition
that western religion was used to oppress and colonize African people with

eing against religion. One having a belief in African spirituality does
not mean that one has to reject his/her religion. There is no conflict.
To the contrary, it is probably because of the African's sense of spirit
that African people are amongst the most religious people in the world.




Education Guides

Parental Guide for Mathematics Competency

A Parental Guide for Mathematics Competency

A Parental Guide for Mathematics Competency


By Leon Dixon



Educators have said that the best indicator of how well a student will do in college is not test scores or grades. It is how well they did\
in geometry. It is also known that that the students who have taken the quality mathematics and science courses (such as advanced algebra an\
d trigonometry and above, and chemistry and physics) have the best SAT and ACT mathematics and science scores.

Many secondary teachers of these courses complain that students entering high school are lacking in the necessary background to handle the \
courses and therefore are in the need of remediation. Furthermore, what the high school mathematics teachers say that they would like the inc\
oming students to have is a good understanding of basic geometric concepts such as tangency, parallelism, and perpendicularity. Also, many of \
the college mathematics teachers say they would like incoming students to have a good background in trigonometry.

Below is a checklist that parents can use to monitor the progress of their child in each grade so that the above criteria can be met. T\
he students should also be able to explain their work.



GradeChecklist
K. Count to 100 & write the numbe\
rs from 1 to 100.

1.
Add single digit numbers.
2.
Add at least two double digit numbers involving carrying; subt\
ract single digit numbers.


3.
Add three triple digit numbers involving carrying; subtract using borrowing; b\
egin learning timetables
; begin multiplication.
4.
Know timetables; multiply a four-digit number by a three-digit number; begin division by single digits.
5.Divide a five-digit number by a two-digit number.

IMPORTANT: IF YOUR CHILD HAS TROUBLE WITH THIS, SEEK HELP IMMEDIATELY. FUTURE SUCCESS DEPENDS ON THIS!
6.Multiply and divide fractions; add and subtract fractions with different denominators.
\

NOTE: If you have trouble checking for this, find someone who can help you with it.

7.
Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals; and perform the conversion between fractions, decimals and percents.

NOTE: Same as in 6.

8.
Perform arithmetic with signed numbers.

NOTE: Same as in 6.
9.
Enroll in algebra I.
10.
Enroll in geometry and biology.
11.
Enroll in algebra II & trigonometry and chemistry.
12.
Enroll in pre-calculus and physics.


The above is only meant to be a guideline for normal student progress. Many students are working ahead of this schedule and that bodes wel\
l for them.




Guideline for Quality Education

Guideline for Quality Education

*** A Guideline for Quality Education ***

"You can go to high school and graduate, or you can go to high school and get educated."

Cornell I. Perry, Sr. — W.E.B. DuBois Learning Center Staff Member

LEVEL

LANGUAGE ARTS

SOCIAL SCIENCE

NATURAL SCIENCE

MATHEMATICS

ADEQUATE

English Grammar,
Reading &

Composition
Civics,
American History,
World History
Biology Algebra,
Geometry

GOOD

American Literature,
1 yr. Foreign

Language
U.S. Government Chemistry Advanced Algebra
& Trigonometry

SUPERIOR

World Literature,
2 yrs. Foreign

Language
Psychology Physics Pre-Calculus

 

*** Additional recommended Quality Course ***

  Black Literature Black History Advanced Chemistry Calculus
  Debate Geography Anatomy & Physiology Computer Science
  Speech Sociology Zoology Statistics

 

The above table contains our recommendations for courses that high school students should take in order to obtain a quality ACADEMIC backgroun\
d. The table has three quality levels. In order to satisfy a particular quality level, the courses to the right of the given level should be\
taken along with all those listed above them.

Under the four basic academic groups are listed additional quality courses that may be interchanged with the recommended courses. The more of\
these quality courses that appear on the high school transcript, the more ACADEMICALLY prepared the student will be.


HTML Tutorial

Jeremiah Cameron

Dr. Jeremiah Cameron is the retired chairman of the English Department of Penn Valley Community College ansas City, Missour

How We Learn





01_09_02_HowWeLearn


"How We Learn"


By Jeremiah Cameron, Ph.D. (September 2, 2001)


The cry of the day is that children are going to school, but they are not learning very much. It is a negligent notion that schools are the primary houses of learning. All of the stimulations in the environment and in the head, neither of which is limited to the schoolhouse, go into the learning process. If the brain cells, neurons we call them, for memory, by which we measure learning, which is a process of brain cell interconnections itself, are not developed before children go to school, then schools are going to be very limited in what they can do to produce learning or learned children.


These articles that I am doing on the brain—which teacher training schools, churches and significant social agencies seem to know tragically little about—are directed at things that parents and all those who deal with children can and need to do to secure proper brain development in those impressionable years of early childhood. Ignore them and, as Shakespeare would say it, the child's learning skills will be lost in the shallows.


The common saying goes right to the point: "USE IT OR LOSE IT." If we are going to produce learning children, then we must create for them—in the home and in the rest of the community—situations that encourage the use and then more use of the brain cells and interconnections that have to be there for learning to take place. Let's review again the operations basic to learning—the actions of neurons that create learning and memory. By encouraging children to use their heads, to think, to memorize (by pointing out things for children to observe; by letting them talk; by letting them draw pictures and designs; by asking questions that make children think and reason), we create the use of nerve cells necessary for learning. The problem with many poor children is that they are permitted to grow like Topsy—without observing; thinking; imagining; and reasoning.


Learning involves stimulations of neurons all over the cortex of the left and right hemispheres, as well as the limbic system. Once again consider this sketch:




impulse traveling through brain cells


Impulse Traveling Through Brain Cells


The DENTRITES of a nerve cell receive some kind of stimulation (like 5 + 5). Electro-chemically the stimulation (perhaps, "Who was our first president?") moves through the cell body and along a longer arm called the AXON, which produces NEUROTRANSMITTERS to the dendrites of another cell body. This is the learning process, which may require stimulus after stimulus (practice, we may call it). The home, the community, as well as the school, must make the children repeat this process or the cells will, not being adequately used, die. USE THE BRAIN CELLS FOR LEARNING OR LOSE THEM. After the loss, what the school can do is limited—despite money and resources.


This is THE problem of the Kansas City, Missouri School District—if the school board, Judge Whipple, and Arthur Benson only knew it! (Judge Whipple and Arthur Benson are the judge and lawyer involving long standing litigation concerning the KCMSD.) The heart of the problem involves basically inadequate Standard English.



The Jeremiah Cameron Articles


Let's Consider "Mama's Touch





01_07_17_MamasTouch


Let's Consider "Mama's Touch"


By Jeremiah Cameron, Ph.D. (July 17, 2001)


Nothing has influenced the ability of people to get along with each other, the ability of people to sympathize and empathize with each other, and the ability of society to maintain law and order through civility—nothing has influenced civilized society like mama's touch: I am talking about the stroking; fondling; hugging; kissing; rubbing; and bouncing of baby, which is so characteristic of mothering in the early days of live.


Once again I cannot understand why neurologists who specialize in brain activity and can now employ all sorts of imaging and brain scanning have not spelled this out chapter and verse for all institutions involved in early childhood development. For years heurologists have known that touch, which creates and develops brain cells (dendrites, cell bodies, and axons that connect with other neurones) has a good deal to do with human behavior—mood, mind-sets, social sensitivity, human values, etc. Touch, as the poet Walt Whitman recognized in the 19th century, "demon touch," he called it, may be the strongest character-determiner of all the somewhat 16 or 17 senses of man. Common experience indicates that there are more than 5 senses.


I have mentioned that we have 3 brains and that the "old brain," lying lower than the 2 obvious hemispheres, developed first and still retains a concern for survival (and sex is a way of surviving through children), anger, flight, escaping pain, and pleasure. The "old brain," called the LIMBIC SYSTEM is not the thinking area of the brain. One of the chief organs of the limbic system is a little almond-shaped organ called the AMYGDALA, which is influential in so much of the anti-social behavior that confronts society and which we should understand better than our way home. A damaged amygdala spells social trouble.


The limbic system, which has to have early healthy development, urges us to touch someone. If mothers and other caretakers of small children understood that pleasant handling of children (rubbing their heads, kissing them, stroking them, playing with their arms, wrestling with them) is as necessary to their emotional health as milk and oatmeal, I know they would do it more often—even when the children are older.


Children MUST have desirable social and physical contact to develop brain cells and neural circuits to prevent the variety of anti-social behaviors that may develop out of childhood and result in the most vicious crimes in later life. Our nervous systems require touching in many different forms—as mama does when she holds, caresses, and rocks baby. And as good mothers and caretakers do to developing children in later life: Omit loving touch, and you may be creating a monster: Under-developed limbic systems can create serial killers and people with no moral restraint.


More on the limbic system, touch and emotional disorders.




The Jeremiah Cameron Articles


Obstructions to Reading 2

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<H1 ALIGN="CENTER">"Obstructions to Reading 2"</H1>
<B><FONT SIZE=4><P ALIGN="CENTER">By Jeremiah Cameron, Ph.D. (September 22, 2001)</P>
</B></FONT>
<P>In a previous article I noted that a well-meaning public needs to do more about the stunted reading skills of children—especially the poor ones coming from homes and communities where "good English" is seldom spoken—than throwing money resources at problems that need more clinical attention. Linguistically trained reading specialist and neurologists who study language development in the brain need to be brought in to re-train teachers in language matters and suggest measures for all the 13 years of schooling. Ages 1–5 are even more crucial, because of the rapid growth of nerves. </P>
<P>The critical years for brain development of reading skills are years 1–10: Let me provide some sentences which indicate vocabulary; idiomatic; grammatical; pronunciation; and syntax differences between "bad English" and "good English"—differences that cause problems for many black children, and poor whites and Mexicans.</P>

<dir><dir>
(a) What the child says: "Jo is one <U>mo' sassy</U> chil<U>e</U>."<br>
(b) What the book says: "Jo is one <U>more saucy</U> chil<U>d</U>."
</dir></dir>

<P>When the black child sees (b) he has to transpose it to what he says (a).</P>

<dir><dir>
(c) Black speech: "I'm goin_ over Sa<U>m</U> house.<br>
(d) What the book says: "I am (or I'm) goi<U>ng</U> over <U>to</U> Sam<U>'s</U> house."
</dir></dir>
<P>The idiom to be translated is "over to." The non-standard speaker must DECODE (d) back into his (c) to understand it.</P>
<dir><dir>
(e) Black speech: "He <U>done gone</U> and <U>stole</U> it <U>hisself</U>.<br>
(f) In the book: "He <U>had gone</U> and <U>stolen</U> it <U>himself</U>.
</dir></dir>
<P>It is the eye that must send the written matter as electro-chemical stimuli to the occipital lobe in the brain. The ANGULAR GYRUS and the PARIETAL LOBE assimilate the stimuli and arrange them so that they can be transferred to areas for hearing in Wernicke's Center and in the TEMPORAL LOBE where are to be found the nerve cells and interconnections necessary for understanding the "good grammar': the accepted temporal-sequencing of subject, verb, phrases; clauses; etc.</P>

<P>Comprehension is a function of the left hemisphere, whether it is reading, writing, naming, and spelling. Thinking and reasoning are language-related phenomena, and with out early development in the nerve system of the left hemisphere, children are going to find it difficult to not only transpose written language into their system of speaking but to analyze and for verbal concepts.</P>

<P>Structures of Black speech which make reading difficult:</P>
<dir><dir>
(g) "<U>Ah ain't never got no</U> back talk <U>by this boy</U>."<br>
(h) In the book: "<U>I have never got (or gotten)</u> back talk <U>from</U> this boy."
</dir></dir>
<center>
<table border=3><tr><td colspan=2>
<img src="CerebralCortex.gif"></td></tr>
<tr><td><img src="LeftHemi.gif"></td><td>
<b><font face="arial" size=2 color="red">
<ol>
<li> Broca's Area
<li> Visual Cortex
<li> Wernicke's Area
<li> Motor Cortex
<li> Cerebral Cortex
<li> Auditory Cortex
<li> Angular Gyrus
</ol>
</td></tr></table></center>
<P>After puberty it will become more and more difficult for the children's brains to transpose from (h) to (g)—spend all the money you want; let the state and the judge order and take over all they want: Nature controls the reading process—not the overseers of schools.</P>

<P><HR></P>
<P ALIGN="CENTER"><A HREF="JCameronArticles.html"><B>The Jeremiah Cameron Articles</B></A></P>
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Obstructions to Reading 2





"Obstructions to Reading 2


"Obstructions to Reading 2"


By Jeremiah Cameron, Ph.D. (October 1, 2001)



In a previous article I noted that a well-meaning public needs to do more about the stunted reading skills of children—especially the poor ones coming from homes and communities where "good English" is seldom spoken—than throwing money resources at problems that need more clinical attention. Linguistically trained reading specialist and neurologists who study language development in the brain need to be brought in to re-train teachers in language matters and suggest measures for all the 13 years of schooling. Ages 1–5 are even more crucial, because of the rapid growth of nerves.


The critical years for brain development of reading skills are years 1–10: Let me provide some sentences which indicate vocabulary; idiomatic; grammatical; pronunciation; and syntax differences between "bad English" and "good English"—differences that cause problems for many black children, and poor whites and Mexicans.


(a) What the child says: "Jo is one mo' sassy chile."

(b) What the book says: "Jo is one more saucy child."

When the black child sees (b) he has to transpose it to what he says (a).


(c) Black speech: "I'm goin_ over Sam house.

(d) What the book says: "I am (or I'm) going over to Sam's house."

The idiom to be translated is "over to." The non-standard speaker must DECODE (d) back into his (c) to understand it.



(e) Black speech: "He done gone and stole it hisself.

(f) In the book: "He had gone and stolen it himself.

It is the eye that must send the written matter as electro-chemical stimuli to the occipital lobe in the brain. The ANGULAR GYRUS and the PARIETAL LOBE assimilate the stimuli and arrange them so that they can be transferred to areas for hearing in Wernicke's Center and in the TEMPORAL LOBE where are to be found the nerve cells and interconnections necessary for understanding the "good grammar': the accepted temporal-sequencing of subject, verb, phrases; clauses; etc.

Comprehension is a function of the left hemisphere, whether it is reading, writing, naming, and spelling. Thinking and reasoning are language-related phenomena, and with out early development in the nerve system of the left hemisphere, children are going to find it difficult to not only transpose written language into their system of speaking but to analyze and for verbal concepts.

Structures of Black speech which make reading difficult:



(g) "Ah ain't never got no back talk by this boy."

(h) In the book: "I have never got (or gotten) back talk from this boy."

  1. Broca's Area
  2. Visual Cortex
  3. Wernicke's Area
  4. Motor Cortex
  5. Cerebral Cortex
  6. Auditory Cortex
  7. Angular Gyrus


After puberty it will become more and more difficult for the children's brains to transpose from (h) to (g)—spend all the money you want; let the state and the judge order and take over all they want: Nature controls the reading process—not the overseers of schools.



The Jeremiah Cameron Articles



Obstructions to Reading





"Obstructions to Reading"


"Obstructions to Reading"


By Jeremiah Cameron, Ph.D. (September 14, 2001)


It is fall again. It is time for children to return to school. It is time for the kids to hit the books again, for it will be through books that children will mainly learn the things taught in school. And this is the rub: Most of the poor kids cannot read, and judges and teachers cannot order them to perform a skill which is as impossible for them as it is for a man to walk without legs.


The naïve public has no idea that the main obstruction lies in precise under-development of the brain centers of language: Recently the local newspaper had coupons that teachers and children can send in to get free reading material. Though a noble gesture, it is pretty much like offering a blind man spectacles to peruse the morning's news or like turning a deaf man's head in the direction of the record player so that he can enjoy Beethoven. Like the inability to read, the loss of vision and hearing is often actually in brain centers for those senses. Vision and hearing are at the heart of reading.


Even those traditionally trained as reading specialists (the problem being that they are not trained in the linguistics of reading) know that the brain, in reading or decoding the printed page, often has to transpose the writing into the spoken language of the reader. Again, here is the rub:


The printed pages of the books so freely offered by the newspapers present a problem to the kids comparable to the blind man's trying to read the morning's news. If those kids have come from homes and communities where their dialects of English differ from what is on the printed page in vocabulary; idioms; grammar; syntactical arrangements of phrases and clauses; pauses and pitches—then they will have to go through a difficult process of translating what they have been told is their own language, just as if they were reading Russian or German. To them the process is more demeaning than rewarding.


Why don't Asians have this same problem—to the extent that blacks and American Mexicans do? Linguists call the problem INTERFERENCE: Since non-standard English is so much like Standard English—in basic structures and vocabulary—the differing structures of the non-standard language INTERFERE with the structures of language on the printed page, which children MUST learn to read before they are 12 years old. English is an INFLECTIONAL language with structures quite different from Chinese, which is an ANALYTICAL language, where various levels of pitch determine meaning. This is why those speaking Chinese seem to be singing as they talk. Speaking Chinese does not INTERFERE with the learning of Standard English. In another article I am going to detail structures of non-standard English which cause the brain to have difficulty in TRANSPOSING printed language into spoken language.


Learning to read is more than practice: It is knowing how to TRANSPOSE, which poor children have difficulty doing, no matter how much free printed matter you give them.




The Jeremiah Cameron Articles



Touch and Social Order





01_07_29_TouchSocialOrder


"Touch and Social Order"


By Jeremiah Cameron, Ph.D. (July 29, 2001)


In an earlier article I pointed out how important it is for parents, nursery centersfs, schools, churches, and especially juvenile authorities to understand the absolute necessity for small children to have body contacts of a pleasant nature, for there is overwhelming evidence of what such contacts have on the brain—especially the limbic system, coming from primitive times and having much control over emotional behavior.


As quiet as it is kept, man is among those animals that have to have body contact for what we call normal behavior. Why football, boxing, wrestling? And of course, why sex? They provide men, who because of the action of the male sex hormone have different contact needs from those of women, the touch sensations which they had already received (or not received) from mother in their earlier years. They "have to" have it.


Animals will endure all kinds of lumps and pain (as men do in football and boxing) to have the sensation of touch, which they may not be aware of as creating and stimulating brain cells—especially in the powerful limbic system of the brain. Who knows what these men would be like without body contacts? Noticeably, small children who have been beaten and abused by their mothers, will cling to their mother and seek them out for the motherly contact. We understand now why children in 19th and early 20th century orphanages and juvenile homes had poor survival rates and later unhappy lives: They really grew up in isolation, without being hugged, stroked and touched.


There is a lesson here for modern child-rearing: Society must see to it that children get proper care in the early years, or society will have to spend billions upon billions in later years to repair the damage they do and keep them locked up and way from society. I am not suggesting the kind of intrusion into family life that took place in Nazi Germany. There is a real problem with teenage mothers whose prefrontal lobes of the brain have not matured to the point of making good judgment.


But even these young mothers, as well as older ones, need to understand how vital it is to touch the children, to read to them, to support them. Child specialists know the devices and techniques that work. Society must do a better job of seeing that this information (like taking the child to a clinic periodically) gets to mothers. All these groups that get together to perform vigils and memorialize children after they have been abused or are dead, could do this. I believe they would do this if they knew what brain specialist and neuroscientists know—and have not made readily accessible.


I have more to say about the influence of the limbic brain on problems that disturb us. Consider the effect of touch. Why do you think that in the midst of a crowd, Jesus cried out, "Somebody touched me!"




The Jeremiah Cameron Articles


Trying Children as Adults





Trying Children as Adults:


Trying Children as Adults:


By Jeremiah Cameron (May 19, 2001)


Trying children as adults is just wrong: Immature brains explain why. In some of the most mature words ever spoken, Christ from the cross explains why there are so many miscarriages of justice: "Father forgive them for they know not what they are doing." Earlier philosophers, Plato for instance, had argued that we do wrong out of ignorance. Socrates said that no one who understands the consequences of a wrong action, would commit that action. This is significantly true of children, whose brains are still in the process of maturing before age 20. This is also true of the adults who punish them.


To attempt—and crime and sociopathic behavior are going to continue so long as there is brain malfunctioning—to protect society, we believe still in the Mosaic code of "lex talionis," an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth, although we proudly wear our crosses, as we do just the opposite of what Christ said in the Sermon on the Mount. Characteristically, when we cannot prevent, explain, or handle a situation we resort to that "old brain" response that is inherent in the very crimes we wish to punish.


When we execute Timothy McVeigh, we are creating that same out-of-sync operation of the "old" or limbic section of the brain (which does not do the thinking for us) and the frontal lobe (where judgment and thoughtfulness take place) that makes us just as much a murderer as McVeigh: We do not want to recognize that the same tendencies that lead performers of vicious criminals to do what they do are in us and causing us to retaliate—to go into court to get an ignorant judge to declare whether someone is sane or insane and then deliver that person into our hands, as Pilate did Jesus, so that we can kill him.


Over and over in these columns, especially as I have addressed poor learning, I have pondered why we are reluctant to find out the causes of unacceptable behavior. There is no response if there is no stimulus. Both response and stimulus impulse are functions within the brain. I believe that we are—in our brains—reluctant to understand that we, society, are partially responsible for the crimes that criminals carry out. We would rather spend billions of dollars to build prisons, electrocution rooms, to hire policemen, prosecuting attorneys and judges (none of whom or which are equipped to get at causes) than to prevent the unacceptable behavior. The madder we get because we cannot understand or control, the harsher the punishment is.


This is not justice; this is revenge which when it comes to letting right be done, is basically unjust and a base way for intelligent people to act. If a child does not have the judgement to drive at 14, to vote at 14, to go into the military at 14, they why do courts declare that he has the wisdom and judgment to understand the nature and consequences of murder at 14? Neurologists tell us that the prefrontal lobe of the brain, where judgment and thoughtfulness take place, is not fully developed at 14. And if the cingulate gyrus, which permits us to move from one thought to another, and the left temporal lobe are not mature, then awful behavior can result. Again, how responsible is the child?




The Jeremiah Cameron Articles



Vowel Phonemes in English





01_10_31_VowelPhoneme


"Vowel Phonemes in English"


By Jeremiah Cameron, Ph.D. (October 31, 2001)


Let's repeat: Most reading, though not all, takes place by mentally (that is, by moving stimuli from the eye centers in the brain to the hearing centers in the LEFT TEMPORAL LOBE) transferring what is on the printed page into the structures of speech (words, consonant sounds, vowel sounds, grammar, arrangements of words and phrases and idioms) of the reader.


It is the hearing areas of the back brain—the thalamus in the mid-brain as well as WERNICKE'S AREA—that comprehends the "rough" sounds called consonants and the "musical" sounds called vowels. These basic sounds are called PHONEMES, which, though differing widely among speakers, permit speakers of a certain dialect (AND ALL LANGUAGES ARE DIALECTS that contain a multiplicity of sub-dialects) to understand each other.


Few teachers are well trained enough to teach the children language and most writers of books are totally ignorant of the fact that phonemes of vowels; consonants; pitch; juncture; and stress are as important to reading as they are to speaking: Notice that most commas and periods on this page, as they are in the books that children have to read, are placed where we HAVE TO pause (JUNCTURE). Meanings or comprehensions are determined by where we have to or do not have to pause.


Linguists and neurologists argue, as I have been trying to tell teachers and school superintendents, that children ought to be made aware of ALL the phonemes: 14–17 vowels; 5–6 vowel-like diphthongs; 25 constants; 3–4 pitches; 3–4 pauses or junctures; and 3–4 stresses. It is in the LEFT HEMISPHERE that these phonemes carry the MEANING that is in language and that is of the printed page to be read.


It is nothing short of criminal that teachers at all levels (for every teacher is also a reading teacher who must be responsible for teaching his students the vocabulary and idiomatic structures of what he teaches, whether it be physics or football) have not been taught what a language is and how its structures must be understood as the children read.


After all these years of linguistic science, teachers and textbooks are still misrepresenting the vowels and consonants, at the basis of speech and reading: No wonder the children are having such difficulty with speaking and writing. They are still being told that there are 5 VOWELS—A, E, I, O, & U, and SOMETIMES Y & W. Angels of intelligence defend us—and the poor kids! The children and teachers use at least 14 to 17 vowels daily—and over and over: The vowels in all these words differ. Count them as you go: dAy; gEt; bE; bIt; cAt; fAther; dO; pUt; gO; slAw; nOt; hEr; fathEr; papA. Notice the different sounds of 'O' in these words: gO; gOt; tO; Other; Ought. This is not arcane academics. The children are using these 14–17 VOWELS everyday and seeing them represented on the printed page everyday. And they have been MISLED! Vowels are sounds—not the letters of the alphabet that TRY to represent them in writing. In UN-stressed syllables most vowels will sound like the "UH" in papA: SCHWA.




The Jeremiah Cameron Articles


Why Discussion of the Brain?





01_08_25_DiscussionBrain


"Why Discussion of the Brain?"


By Jeremiah Cameron, Ph.D. (August 25, 2001)


Why all these articles on the brain? Tell me, how does one intelligently consider any aspect of human behavior—thinking, planning, learning, behaving nobly or ignobly, warring, concertizing—without understanding the forces that cause or energize those forms of behavior: Those forces come from the brain—more specifically from nerve cells and billions upon billions of interconnections within organs and association areas within the brain.


If people are acting with charity, it is because there are cellular structures, some of them identifiable, for that kind of behavior. If men excel over women in mathematical and spatial perception, it is because the structures in the right side of their brains are somewhat different from those in women's brains. And different sex hormones bathe them daily. When you consider the keen spatial perceptions that a quarterback must have, you can understand that men will always be, right-brain wise, the better football players—and not just because of strength.


Everybody knows that women seem to talk more than men: It is the left side of the brain, where the female nerve hookups differ from those of men, that controls grammatical relationships, fluency of speech, and articulateness. Every schoolboy knows that girls do better in English and bookish things that require language manipulation than they do. In spite of the fact that men have dominated writing —as poets, dramatists, novelists, etc.—it is women who purchase most printed materials—like magazines, tabloids, fiction (especially romantic) and poetry.


Consider the evolution of the brain functions, as you consider the evolution of man (Homo erectus, Homo habilis, Homo sapiens, and Homo sapien sapiens): Consider men as hunters: When you hunt animals you talk as little as possible, but you keep in contact with other men hunting by imitating animal cries: Notice that little boys still try to moo like cows, or grunt like hogs, and bow-wow like dogs. And girls seldom or never do this.


Consider women as gatherers of plants and nuts for what I heard a minister call the "divine diet." Women would have to be out gathering together—as the men had to cooperate to hunt and bring down behemoths or tigers. And they would have to carry their young into the fields, whom they would have to locate from time to time by calling out their names. And women would have to locate each other by talking all the time! This they did years ago—and they have never stopped talking! And all those years brain cells for language were developing and evolving in the human brain.


It is pure ignorance of how specific structures of the brain influence what we do—and often without deliberation or control—that would cause a writer like Kathleen Parker to say that she is "disinclined to empathize with fully-grown adults who act badly on account of a lousy childhood." My dear Kathleen, you may be unempathetic because of a lousy childhood. What does Kathleen's brain know about the brains of others?




The Jeremiah Cameron Articles


Answers from Neurology





Answers from Neurology


Answers from Neurology

By Jeremiah Cameron, Ph.D. (May 4, 2001)



We are what our brains dictate, and therein lie many answers from neuroscience or neurology that could help us be better people and a better society. Einstein once said, as he worked unsuccessfully to find it, that when we find the Final Formula (beyond his e=mc2) it will be "so" simple that we will wonder why we never thought of it.

A paradox is a proposition or idea that seems to contradict itself, seeming absurd, but is in fact true. I believe that God is a paradox, and as such, He and His creation, are ultimately very simple and also just as complex. Human behavior—living, hating, emoting, thinking, reading, writing, murdering, torturing—is what the brain causes us to do, and we rarely realize that we could turn to it to help us with our problems.

The activity of the brain—and there are really three of them in our heads—is paradoxically causing many of our actions that seem to contradict themselves. If it is inconceivable that a mother will slaughter her child, then one needs only consider that if the "old" brain or limbic system is not in sync with one of the upper hemispheres, pitting emotion against reason, we can get just such contradictory behavior—THAT OF A MOTHER KILLING THE CHIILD THE LOVES.

We have such contradictory behavior—much of it anti-social and horrifying to the community—all the time, and we never think to consider the brain as the culprit. And that is because we know so little of what neurologists and psychologists have been arguing and reporting down through the years about the impact of the brain upon behavior—especially learning and neurotic and psychotic behavior.

I hold those who know or should know at fault for taking so long to focus on the structures of the brain as they consider serious problems that confront us and society. Teachers are trying to teach kids without knowing very much about the structures in the brain where memory and language are processed. For years now I have mentioned in articles what every neurologist and psycholinguists has known for years and can now through brain imaging prove—that the brain cells for language skills are produced most abundantly in the first 2 years of life and slow up dramatically when puberty sets in (much, much earlier now: for some girls at 8 years old and for boys a few years later): Dumb-dumb should know then that billions should be spent on early childhood education. Most money spent on remediation later, while charitable and hopeful, is a misuse of public funds.

In future writings, I shall detail what every citizen should know about his brain that could be useful to him and society.




Answers from Neurology





Answers from Neurology


Answers from Neurology


By Jeremiah Cameron, Ph.D. (May 4, 2001)


We are what our brains dictate, and therein lie many answers from neuroscience or neurology that could help us be better people and a better society. Einstein once said, as he worked unsuccessfully to find it, that when we find the Final Formula (beyond his e=mc2) it will be "so" simple that we will wonder why we never thought of it.


A paradox is a proposition or idea that seems to contradict itself, seeming absurd, but is in fact true. I believe that God is a paradox, and as such, He and His creation, are ultimately very simple and also just as complex. Human behavior—living, hating, emoting, thinking, reading, writing, murdering, torturing—is what the brain causes us to do, and we rarely realize that we could turn to it to help us with our problems.


The activity of the brain—and there are really three of them in our heads—is paradoxically causing many of our actions that seem to contradict themselves. If it is inconceivable that a mother will slaughter her child, then one needs only consider that if the "old" brain or limbic system is not in sync with one of the upper hemispheres, pitting emotion against reason, we can get just such contradictory behavior—THAT OF A MOTHER KILLING THE CHIILD THE LOVES.


We have such contradictory behavior—much of it anti-social and horrifying to the community—all the time, and we never think to consider the brain as the culprit. And that is because we know so little of what neurologists and psychologists have been arguing and reporting down through the years about the impact of the brain upon behavior—especially learning and neurotic and psychotic behavior.


I hold those who know or should know at fault for taking so long to focus on the structures of the brain as they consider serious problems that confront us and society. Teachers are trying to teach kids without knowing very much about the structures in the brain where memory and language are processed. For years now I have mentioned in articles what every neurologist and psycholinguists has known for years and can now through brain imaging prove—that the brain cells for language skills are produced most abundantly in the first 2 years of life and slow up dramatically when puberty sets in (much, much earlier now: for some girls at 8 years old and for boys a few years later): Dumb-dumb should know then that billions should be spent on early childhood education. Most money spent on remediation later, while charitable and hopeful, is a misuse of public funds.


In future writings, I shall detail what every citizen should know about his brain that could be useful to him and society.




Part 2


Answers from Neurology, Part 2





NeurologyAnswers2


Answers from Neurology, Part 2


By Jeremiah Cameron, Ph.D. (May 11, 2001)


As I have pointed out in a previous writing, neurology largely concerns itself with the driving force in our existence—the brain—and we take this organ, clearly the seat of consciousness, for granted. Few of us are aware of the fact that when doctors prescribe medicines for depression, nervousness, and anxiety (like Prozac and Elavil) they are using chemicals that affect specific nerve cells in the brain.


There has been a kind of rhyme and reason to the existence of living things: they are cells upon cells. The brain is cells upon cells, and it has been estimated that in the cortex, that gray matter in the surface of the two upper brains (the left and right hemispheres) and the cerebellum, just above the stem, and controlling action, there are more neurons or cell bodies than there are stars in the heavens.


These neurons (that ultimately determine how we function, what we are and do) are somewhat like a branch with a knot in it: The knot is the cell body, which at one end has spreading branches called dendrites, and which at the other end has a long arm called an axon. When stimulated (say, by seeing a rose or by a needle stuck into the finger or by the taste of sugar or by an idea from within) the dendrites will receive an impulse that gets passed on through the cell body and to the axon, which uses some kind of neuro-transmitter to pass the impulse on to dendrites of another cell body.


In some common ailments, like Parkinson's or Alzheimer's Disease, the insufficiency of neuro-transmitters is suspected as the cause of the disorder. What we feel or think or imagine or do is the effect of all those transmissions—impulse in through dendrites, through the cell body and then down the axon which makes a point of contact (called the synapse) with the dendrites of another cell. These interconnections (imagine 10 billion cells hooked up into all kinds of interconnections) cause us to be who we are, what we know, how our consciousness operates, and what we do.



impulse traveling through brain cells


Impulse Traveling Through Brain Cells

Gentle reader, we are primarily what our brains are. It is easy for the people, as a matter of convenience or lack of ability to deal with perplexing situations, to say someone "knew" what he was doing, "knew right from wrong," like our courts (equally ignorant), when in truth that person is capable of knowing only what his three brains can produce for him through its cells and interconnections of cells. How responsible is one for bad connections or defects?


Only someone with absolute understanding of all this brain activity is in a position to know how culpable someone is: No wonder God is so forgiving, as we do the best we know how to do justice. Our fault is not in our stars. It is in our brains. Again, where does responsibility lie?



Part 1


Brain Involvement in Reading





Brain Involvement in Reading


Brain Involvement in Reading


By Jeremiah Cameron, Ph.D. (June 2, 2001)


I would not be doing all these articles on neurology (the brain), if I, as a former teacher of language, whose graduate training was in English linguistics, was not suggesting to others in the language arts, where reading resides, that specific brain developments must be taken into consideration as they help children learn to read. Decoding writing requires mental transposing.


What happens to the brain during the first 10 years of life, predicts for us what individual and societal life are going to be like later. Why are we so bull-headed as a people, so willing to spend billions later trying to avenge or correct behavior that could have been prevented for pennies in the early years of life? Of course everybody knows that this is true of health also. The message of the Old Testament about "training a child up in the way you would have him go" is the wisdom of every religion and people on earth. The "eye on the prize" is on early childhood development.


I must say over and over that reading is one language skill among others, like talking, singing, and mimicking. Paleontologists tell us, by examining ancient human fossils, that man was not able to talk until his voice box, after centuries of human development, became lowered in the throat. As quiet as it is kept, this is why babies, in spite of being exposed to human speech for months, cannot produce speech either until the voice box, usually 12 to 19 months after birth, lowers in their throat. Language is basically sound, which is produced on the exhaled air coming out of the lungs. Muscles in the diaphragm, like a bellows, force the air up through the voice box into the mouth where the tongue and lips do so many things with it as to produce hundreds of sounds possible for language. Some speech, like crying, is on inhaled air: Shakespeare's "tut-tut."


American English operates with some 14 vowels; 5 diphthongs; 25 consonants; 2 to 4 stresses; 3 to 4 pauses; and 3 to 4 pitches. We call the 19 vowels and 25 consonants SEGMENTAL PHONEMES and the pauses, (actually junctures), stresses, and pitches SUPRA-SEGMENTAL PHONEMES. The phonemes (which in a language can exist in many forms) are to language what an atom is to matter. They determine MEANING.

Broca's Area

Notice the different meanings in these two sentences that contain a word with the same segmental phonemes but with different supra-segmental phonemes: "Mistress Mary, quite conTRARY, who on the CONtrary is very kind." Stress changes meaning.


These sounds are produced in the mouth by cells in BROCA's AREA in the brain (indicated in red in the figure), but they are HEARD or PERCEIVED by brain cells in the left hemisphere of the TEMPORAL LOBE.




The Jeremiah Cameron Articles


Brain, Hand and Mouth

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<H1 ALIGN="CENTER">"Brain, Hand and Mouth"</H1>
<B><FONT SIZE=4><P ALIGN="CENTER">By Jeremiah Cameron, Ph.D. (October 13, 2001)</P>
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<P>This article would provide nothing new if it simply asserted that to read and to learn, children have to use their brains: Every schoolboy knows this. But what most teachers, who try to teach every schoolboy, do not know is that there is a special relation between the frontal and parietal lobes of the brain and the motor activities of hand and mouth involved in the reading process.</P>

<P>Before we discuss these relationships that go into the reading process, let us look again at the Microsoft representation of the brain which we saw in the <a href="01_10_01_ObstructionsToReading2.html">last article</a>:</P>

<center>
<table border=3><tr><td colspan=2>
<img src="images/CerebralCortex.gif"></td></tr>
<tr><td><img src="images/LeftHemi.gif"></td><td>
<b><font face="arial" size=2 color="red">
<ol>
<li> Broca's Area
<li> Visual Cortex
<li> Wernicke's Area
<li> Motor Cortex
<li> Cerebral Cortex
<li> Auditory Cortex
<li> Angular Gyrus
</ol>
</td></tr></table></center>

<P>Observe that at the back of the frontal lobe and in front of the CENTRAL FISSURE is a strip called the MOTOR CORTEX, for all basic and skilled movements (such as the hand and the mouth). Stimuli will go from the MOTOR BAND to the cerebellum, at the base of the brain. It is BROCA'S AREA at the base of the area, which controls the hand and the mouth, that makes the spoken language, so basic to reading, possible. That spoken language, as we know consists of the sound structures that becomes words, phrases, clauses, idioms, etc. which children must perceive to read. Without BROCA'S AREA the mouth could form no speech sounds.</P>

<P>When Shakespeare went to school, children learned by using their hands to copy great and well-written Greek and Roman literature. And even in my school days, we copied and copied. It has never dawned upon educators who believe that they should use modern technology to make schooling "easy" for kids—to relieve them of the drudgery of writing and writing and writing—that the handwriting ingrains reading skills. Neurologists and linguists now believe that those grammatical and syntactical structures that must be perceived for us to read are related to handiness and to the left parietal lobe.</P>

<P>Most people are right handed, because of the motor band in the left hemisphere, which controls muscles in the neck-down-right-side of the body as the right hemisphere controls muscle activity in the left side of the body. As we use the right hand to write (and perhaps to create neural connections for the structures required for reading) we often gesture in doing so. These gestures communicate meanings also. And the hand picks up the time sequence, order and rhythms of written and spoken speech.</P>
<P> </P>
<P>To read well (and this must take place in the early years) children must use the mouth to produce he structures that are crudely reproduced on the printed page (the brain's BROCA'S AREA and PARIETAL LOBE at work). Teachers need to return to having children use their hands to write and copy and compose the structures that the eye sees. Using the mouth to say aloud poems and other great literature will do much to ingrain the structures that children will find in books. No wonder so many writers still write longhand rather than use a typewriter of computers.</P>
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<P ALIGN="CENTER"><A HREF="JCameronArticles.html"><B>The Jeremiah Cameron Articles</B></A></P>
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Dialects and the Left Brain





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Dialects and the Left Brain


By Jeremiah Cameron, Ph.D. (July 1, 2001)

Whenever schools or parents try to teach children language (and the critical years or windows of opportunity are years 1–10), they want to create nerve cells and interconnections in the left side of the brain. Any form of language the child is taught is some form of dialect, for languages and systems of speech are all technically dialects. The Left Hemisphere processes all aspects of each dialect.


It is the dialect problem that is the main reason why so many children are performing poorly in our schools. Schooling involves understanding what is on the printed page and/or understanding the spoken instructions of the teacher. The language of books is in the dialect of STANDARD AMERICAN ENGLISH. And if the child's left-brain has the neural connections for its sounds; arrangements of words and phrases, meanings of words used; pitch; pauses; stresses and idioms that appear on the printed page, the child will be able to read the writing.


Most such children are middle class children, coming from homes where "good" English is spoken. But if the child is poor black, white, Mexican or Asian he likely comes from a home where the language—in words, grammar, syntax, idioms, pitch and stresses—is NOT LIKE THAT OF THE BOOKS, that child will not be able to read. He will also have difficulty understanding the spoken dialect of the more-educated teacher.


Take note that schools all over this country with teachers and administrators, who ought to know this and have no specific conception of the difference-in-dialect language problem, spend and spend and spend—and the children still cannot read. I do not wish to be pessimistic, but there is not too much that can be done to achieve in-depth reading, after puberty has set in. Nature, not me, is dictating this. Look at the data.


What linguist and neurologists assumed years ago can be proved through the brain scans that can be taken as children assert mental abilities. With adequate language stimuli—like letting small children see your facial expressions as you read aloud, emphasizing and stressing words and word units; providing children with books, and LETTING CHILDREN TALK—children's brain areas for language, especially in the LEFT HEMISPHERE, develop like mad in years 1–3 and continue to develop until puberty, at which time the growth does not stop but slows up CONSIDERABLY. To hone language children must be allowed to "talk back."


What must school do to aid the LEFT HEMISPHERE, which is responsible for coding a dialect's words, phrases, pitches, pauses, stresses, word hoard, idioms and word and phrase arrangements? Create materials and structures that help the kids who speak a non-standard dialect transpose the printed page into the way they speak. THERE IS NO OTHER WAY PRESENTLY. Few teachers have been trained to do this. BUT THEY CAN BE TRAINED TO DO IT. There is no other way to get children to read—and cease being humiliated, embarrassed, frustrated dropouts or troublemakers. The handwriting has been on the wall!




The Jeremiah Cameron Articles


Reading Problems and the Brain





01_07_08_ReadingProblemsBrain


Reading Problems and the Brain


By Jeremiah Cameron, Ph.D. (July 8, 2001)


The teaching of reading is a national disaster because a lack of instructional understanding of what a language is (that is, its sounds; its grammar; its sequencing of words and grammatical units; and its idioms and vocabulary) and how the brain remains MASTER of all language skills, processed in various areas and most especially in the Left Temporal Lobe. One should not have to think a second time to understand the validity of this charge. Parents—especially the mother, who represents language to the baby—are the first teachers of the language skills that lead to reading, and there are things that they can do earlier than the school. These early actions create brain cells for reading.


The failure of so many kids to read—especially poor and minority kids—has nothing to do with intelligence. Most people have language skills adequate to their daily life: God has seen to that in the way he has seen to sunlight and air. We make our own language, just as we make clothing accepted in our social life. Any one language is as good as another—in its place (which could be formal, informal, colloquial, low-life, etc.) and performing its function. Written materials in this country are most often put in the dialect (and all languages are really dialects) of the power structure—called Standard or STANDARD AMERICAN ENGLISH.


If a child grows up in a middle class or upper class family and lives in a similar community, he will grow up with the grammar, syntax, idioms, and vocabulary found in schoolbooks. Nerve cells and interconnections in the LEFT TEMPORAL LOBE have been created to COMPREHEND the wordings and arrangement of words on the printed page: HE CAN READ. Interestingly, that same lobe controls hand movements; hence, the gestures of the right hand that often accompany speech.


If a child is poor (as too many minority children are) he may speak one of a number of different other dialects (and they are not sub-dialects; they are bonafide ways of speaking, although they may not be STANDARD). For the sentence "The new students in our class came from Africa," he may say, "New students of our class done come out of Africa." Such students will at first—and maybe finally—have trouble reading the bookish language. In a book published in the 1980's—Twice As Less—the writer details a number of such non-standard phrasal and dependent clause constructions of black high school students. You would think that by now teachers of language who listen to black children talk, or read what they write, would have recognized first, that the writing is erroneous and secondly, that such speech might inhibit reading the Standard English of the printed page. Such is the case, and teachers must find means of helping non-standard speakers decode—in their brains the printed page. And this must be done very early—before the onset of puberty.




The Jeremiah Cameron Articles


Reading and the Left Temporal Lobe





"Reading and the Left Temporal Lobe"


"Reading and the Left Temporal Lobe"


By Jeremiah Cameron (June 23, 2001)


Nobody ought to be teaching in grades K– 6, where reading skills must be emphasized— because the growth and activity in the brain areas that process language slow up after age 10—who does not know how the LEFT TEMPORAL LOBE makes reading possible. See: http://www.umich.edu/~cogneuro/jpg/Brodmann.html

Frontal Lobe


Reading requires what teachers in the good old days taught—when kids who came from two-room school houses read better in grade five than many college graduates today. Consider old-fashioned an useless by many teacher training schools today, formal grammar (not just USAGE) and diagramming were the order of the day. Far from useless and mental keys to understanding how words and word-groups are employed in comprehension, grammatical structuring and the sequencing of words and word-groups (called SYNTAX) are vital tools in the reading process—if only teachers, many of whom know little grammar themselves, understood this.


Since reading is basic to all the other academics of schools, if many, many American children cannot read, then expect a low status of American learning at every level.


It is in the TEMPORAL LOBE, situated at what one might call the bottom of the CEREBRUM, that we find the nerve cells and interconnections that create the TEMPORAL-SEQUENTIAL relationship between the units of a sentence. Let us take a sentence written on the printed page: THE NEW STUDENTS IN OUR CLASS CAME FROM AFRICA. Notice that the words and word groups come in a sequential order that is peculiar to English, and is not necessarily found in all the languages in the world. We read by hooking the "doer' word (or SUBJECT) "students" with an ACTION or HAVING or Being (or PREDICATE) "came." We expand the meaning by modifying subjects and verbs with single works or word groups Called PHRASES or Dependent CLAUSES. The -s on "students" gives it the meaning of more than one, and the lack of an -s on "came" makes it agree with the subject "students."


Modifiers of "students": THE (meaning definitely about "students") and the prepositional phrase IN OUT CLASS (spoken in one breath with all three words connected) tells IN WHICH CLASS? And WHERE THE STUDENTS ARE. The plural verb came has its meaning modified by a prepositional phrase that tells WHERE THE STUDENTS CAME FROM (once again, said with all three works connected).


The MAIN POINT: There is a TEMPORAL-SEQUENCE between word groups and a SYNTACTICAL STRUCTURE. "THE" must come before "students" and the prepositional phrase "in our class" with "in" before "our," which is before "from Africa" (as a one-breath unit) comes after the verb "came." To comprehend the sentence the reader must MENTALLY understand, this word order and the grammatical endings or lack of them. This mental action takes place in the LEFT TEMPORAL LOBE.


The BRAIN POINT: It is in the LEFT TEMPORAL LOBE that the mental process of comprehension takes place. This lobe MUST be developed in early youth. Words and their meanings; sounds and their meanings; syllables and their meanings; pauses or lack of pauses after words or word groups; numbers rhymes—and most importantly ANALYTICAL REASONING—are processed in the left temporal lobe. For children to read well the nerve cells for these skills must be developed before puberty sets in.


Parents and school MUST—in those first 10 years of life do with the child those things that develop in the LEFT TEMPORAL LOBE the structures for reading. In a following article, I am going to explain that if the early development does not take place for the DIALECT of the language on the printed page—STANDARD AMERICAN ENGLISH DIALECT in this country—children in school, and adults too, will have difficulty reading. Which is the basis of our education system.


When will school systems learn what has been known for over 50 years? Reading aloud to small children—with facial expressions, emphases, pauses and stresses—creates and develops in language areas of the brain nerve cells for reading: Ages 1 to 10 are critical. When will churches and other community groups work with mothers to read aloud to children?




The Jeremiah Cameron Articles


Why Phonics





"Why Phonics


"Why Phonics?"


By Jeremiah Cameron, Ph.D. (August 15, 2001)


Although teachers—especially of the young and impressionable children—take no such oath as doctors do, admonishing them "to do no harm," they need to be reminded, day after day, as they teach children, that they should be cautious about innovations that might do more harm than good. An unfortunate thing about colleges and universities today is that, obsessed with the idea of research, even if it amounts to just rummaging through a junk pile to see what is there and get to the bottom, they have abandoned even commonsense in the effort to come up with something that piddling "research" considers new. There's nothing new about the way the left hemisphere of the brain identifies the sounds—separating, sorting in timed sequences—to make words.


Ordinary human experience, if educational researchers want to write doctoral dissertations that are practical and make sense too, what even untrained people know, has demonstrated that sound and certain grammatical structures operating as sound bites enable us to read better. And why not, since what we read on the printed page is SOUND? Though what we read appears as something we SEE, that writing has to be mentally transposed into what we SAY—word combinations so important to PHONICS: prefixes, suffixes, the arrangement of structures as words, phrases, clauses. THERE IS NO OTHER WAY TO READ. The left hemisphere must be trained to understand sound units that make words and word groups that have meaning.


Everything on the printed page—including the absolutely necessary stresses; pauses; and pitches—is SOUND, and some of these sound-groups constitute what schools call PHONICS. It is important for readers to know that the eye may see PNEUMONIA but that the PN in similar words like PNEUMATICS and PNEUMOGASTRIC is sounded like just N. Phonics deals with how spelling sounds and the sounds of letter combinations (usually 2 consonants together in a language that characteristically has a vowel between 2 consonants)—ST-; SR-; BL-; PR-; KN-; QU-; GL-; etc.


To make a point about WHOLE LEARNING, schools of education (which I believe have done as much harm in teacher training as they have done good) for the past 70 years have failed to recognize the fact that what they expect the children to grasp as a unit is a UNIT OF SOUND: Phonics is a system dealing with spellings of PHONEMES—basic units of SOUND. It does not take much sense to understand that the phonics approach HAS TO accompany all other approaches, for writing is a means of representing spelled sound and the arrangement of sounds into structures of grammar and word arrangements.


The brain has what we call ASSOCIATION AREAS: BROCA'S AREA permits us to muscularly make the sounds, which I shall take up in a later article. To understand written language (reading) we must use the association area in the back of the brain (the OCCIPITAL LOBE). To understand speech or spoken language we have to use association areas in the TEMPORAL LOBE. Defects in these areas are going to spell trouble for reading—like dyslexia.


There are nerve fibers that connect these language areas, making possible the WHOLE EXPERIENCE that educators hope for. The ARCUATE FASCICULUS in the Temporal Lobe is such a bundle of fibers.




The Jeremiah Cameron Articles



Math

A Parental Guide for Mathematics Competency

A Parental Guide for Mathematics Competency

A Parental Guide for Mathematics Competency


By Leon Dixon



Educators have said that the best indicator of how well a student will do in college is not test scores or grades. It is how well they did in geometry. It is also known that that the students who have taken the quality mathematics and science courses (such as advanced algebra and trigonometry and above, and chemistry and physics) have the best SAT and ACT mathematics and science scores.

Many secondary teachers of these courses complain that students entering high school are lacking in the necessary background to handle the courses and therefore are in the need of remediation. Furthermore, what the high school mathematics teachers say that they would like the incoming students to have is a good understanding of basic geometric concepts such as tangency, parallelism, and perpendicularity. Also, many of the college mathematics teachers say they would like incoming students to have a good background in trigonometry.

Below is a checklist that parents can use to monitor the progress of their child in each grade so that the above criteria can be met. The students should also be able to explain their work.

Check for the child's ability to:



GradeChecklist
K. Count to 100 & write the numbers from 1 to 100.

1.
Add single digit numbers.
2.
Add at least two double digit numbers involving carrying; subtract single digit numbers.

3.
Add three triple digit numbers involving carrying; subtract using borrowing; begin learning timetables; begin multiplication.
4.
Know timetables; multiply a four-digit number by a three-digit number; begin division by single digits.
5.Divide a five-digit number by a two-digit number.

IMPORTANT: IF YOUR CHILD HAS TROUBLE WITH THIS, SEEK HELP IMMEDIATELY. FUTURE SUCCESS DEPENDS ON THIS!
6.Multiply and divide fractions; add and subtract fractions with different denominators.

NOTE: If you have trouble checking for this, find someone who can help you with it.
7.
Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals; and perform the conversion between fractions, decimals and percents.

NOTE: Same as in 6.

8.
Perform arithmetic with signed numbers.

NOTE: Same as in 6.
9.
Enroll in algebra I.
10.
Enroll in geometry and biology.
11.
Enroll in algebra II & trigonometry and chemistry.
12.
Enroll in pre-calculus and physics.


The above is only meant to be a guideline for normal student progress. Many students are working ahead of this schedule and that bodes well for them.





Basic Computer Math Conversions Handout

Word Lists

001 - 100 --> First 100 Most Commonly Used English Words





The First 100 Most Commonly Used English Words

The First 100 Most Commonly Used English Words




These most commonly used words are ranked by frequency. The first 25 make up about one-third of all printed material in English. The first 100 make up about one-half of all written material, and the first 300 make up about sixty-five percent of all written material in English.





The First Hundred



  1. the
  2. of
  3. and
  4. a
  5. to
  6. in
  7. is
  8. you
  9. that
  10. it
  11. he
  12. was
  13. for
  14. on
  15. are
  16. as
  17. with
  18. his
  19. they
  20. I

  1. at
  2. be
  3. this
  4. have
  5. from
  6. or
  7. one
  8. had
  9. by
  10. word
  11. but
  12. not
  13. what
  14. all
  15. were
  16. we
  17. when
  18. your
  19. can
  20. said

  1. there
  2. use
  3. an
  4. each
  5. which
  6. she
  7. do
  8. how
  9. their
  10. if
  11. will
  12. up
  13. other
  14. about
  15. out
  16. many
  17. then
  18. them
  19. these
  20. so

  1. some
  2. her
  3. would
  4. make
  5. like
  6. him
  7. into
  8. time
  9. has
  10. look
  11. two
  12. more
  13. write
  14. go
  15. see
  16. number
  17. no
  18. way
  19. could
  20. people

  1. my
  2. than
  3. first
  4. water
  5. been
  6. call
  7. who
  8. oil
  9. its
  10. now
  11. find
  12. long
  13. down
  14. day
  15. did
  16. get
  17. come
  18. made
  19. may
  20. part

Taken From: The Reading Teachers Book of Lists, Third Edition; by Edward Bernard Fry, Ph.D, Jacqueline E. Kress, Ed.D & Dona Lee Fountoukidis, Ed.D.


101 - 200 --> Second 100 Most Commonly Used English Words





The Second 100 Most Commonly Used English Words

The Second 100 Most Commonly Used English Words




These most commonly used words are ranked by frequency. The first 25 make up about one-third of all printed material in English. The first 1\
00 make up about one-half of all written material, and the first 300 make up about sixty-five percent of all written material in English.





The Second Hundred



  1. over
  2. new
  3. sound
  4. take
  5. only
  6. little
  7. work
  8. know
  9. place
  10. year
  11. live
  12. me
  13. back
  14. give
  15. most
  16. very
  17. after
  18. thing
  19. our
  20. just

  1. name
  2. good
  3. sentence
  4. man
  5. think
  6. say
  7. great
  8. where
  9. help
  10. through
  11. much
  12. before
  13. line
  14. right
  15. too
  16. mean
  17. old
  18. any
  19. same
  20. tell

  1. boy
  2. follow
  3. came
  4. want
  5. show
  6. also
  7. around
  8. form
  9. three
  10. small
  11. set
  12. put
  13. end
  14. does
  15. another
  16. well
  17. large
  18. must
  19. big
  20. even

  1. such
  2. because
  3. turn
  4. here
  5. why
  6. ask
  7. went
  8. men
  9. read
  10. need
  11. land
  12. different
  13. home
  14. us
  15. move
  16. try
  17. kind
  18. hand
  19. picture
  20. again

  1. change
  2. off
  3. play
  4. spell
  5. air
  6. away
  7. animal
  8. house
  9. point
  10. page
  11. letter
  12. mother
  13. answer
  14. found
  15. study
  16. still
  17. learn
  18. should
  19. America
  20. world

Taken From: The Reading Teachers Book of Lists, Third Edition; by Edward Bernard Fry, Ph.D, Jacqueline E. Kress, Ed.D & Dona Lee Founto\
ukidis, Ed.D.




201 - 299 --> Third 100 Most Commonly Used English Words





The Third 100 Most Commonly Used English Words

Third 100 Most Commonly Used English Words




These most commonly used words are ranked by frequency. The first 25 make up about one-third of all printed material in English. The first 1\
00 make up about one-half of all written material, and the first 300 make up about sixty-five percent of all written material in English.





The Third Hundred



  1. high
  2. every
  3. near
  4. add
  5. food
  6. between
  7. own
  8. below
  9. country
  10. plant
  11. last
  12. school
  13. father
  14. keep
  15. tree
  16. never
  17. start
  18. city
  19. earth
  20. eye

  1. light
  2. thought
  3. head
  4. under
  5. story
  6. saw
  7. left
  8. don't
  9. few
  10. while
  11. along
  12. might
  13. close
  14. something
  15. seem
  16. next
  17. hard
  18. open
  19. example
  20. begin

  1. life
  2. always
  3. those
  4. both
  5. paper
  6. together
  7. got
  8. group
  9. often
  10. run
  11. important
  12. until
  13. children
  14. side
  15. feet
  16. car
  17. mile
  18. night
  19. walk
  20. white

  1. sea
  2. began
  3. grow
  4. took
  5. river
  6. four
  7. carry
  8. state
  9. once
  10. book
  11. hear
  12. stop
  13. without
  14. second
  15. later
  16. miss
  17. idea
  18. enough
  19. eat
  20. face

  1. watch
  2. far
  3. Indian
  4. really
  5. almost
  6. let
  7. above
  8. girl
  9. sometimes
  10. mountain
    LI>cut
  11. young
  12. talk
  13. soon
  14. list
  15. song
  16. being
  17. leave
  18. family
  19. it's

Taken From: The Reading Teachers Book of Lists, Third Edition; by Edward Bernard Fry, Ph.D, Jacqueline E. Kress, Ed.D & Dona Lee Founto\
ukidis, Ed.D.

301- 400 --> Fourth 100 Most Commonly Used English Words





The Fourth 100 Most Commonly Used English Words

Fourth 100 Most Commonly Used English Words

(These most commonly used words are ranked by frequency. The first 25 make up about one-third of all printed material in English. The first \
100 make up about one-half of all written material, and the first 300 make up about sixty-five percent of all written material in English.)





The Fourth Hundred



  1. body
  2. music
  3. color
  4. stand
  5. sun
  6. questions
  7. fish
  8. area
  9. mark
  10. dog
  11. horse
  12. birds
  13. problem
  14. complete
  15. room
  16. knew
  17. since
  18. ever
  19. piece
  20. told

  1. usually
  2. didn't
  3. friends
  4. easy
  5. heard
  6. order
  7. red
  8. door
  9. sure
  10. become
  11. top
  12. ship
  13. across
  14. today
  15. during
  16. short
  17. better
  18. best
  19. however
  20. low

  1. hours
  2. black
  3. products
  4. happened
  5. whole
  6. measure
  7. remember
  8. early
  9. waves
  10. reached
  11. listen
  12. wind
  13. rock
  14. space
  15. covered
  16. fast
  17. several
  18. hold
  19. himself
  20. toward

  1. five
  2. step
  3. morning
  4. passed
  5. vowel
  6. true
  7. hundred
  8. against
  9. pattern
  10. numeral
  11. table
  12. north
  13. slowly
  14. money
  15. map
  16. farm
  17. pulled
  18. draw
  19. voice
  20. seen

  1. cold
  2. cried
  3. plan
  4. notice
  5. south
  6. sing
  7. war
  8. ground
  9. fall
  10. king
  11. town
  12. I'll
  13. unit
  14. figure
  15. certain

  16. field
  17. travel
  18. wood
  19. fire
  20. upon

Taken From: The Reading Teachers Book of Lists, Third Edition; by Edward Bernard Fry, Ph.D, Jacqueline E. Kress, Ed.D & Dona Lee Founto\
ukidis, Ed.D.



401 - 500 --> Fifth 100 Most Commonly Used English Words





The Fifth 100 Most Commonly Used English Words

Fifth 100 Most Commonly Used English Words

(These most commonly used words are ranked by frequency. The first 25 make up about one-third of all printed material in English. The first \
100 make up about one-half of all written material, and the first 300 make up about sixty-five percent of all written material in English.)





The Fifth Hundred



  1. done
  2. English
  3. road
  4. halt
  5. ten
  6. fly
  7. gave
  8. box
  9. finally
  10. wait
  11. correct
  12. oh
  13. quickly
  14. person
  15. became
  16. shown
  17. minutes
  18. strong
  19. verb
  20. stars

  1. front
  2. feel
  3. fact
  4. inches
  5. street
  6. decided
  7. contain
  8. course
  9. surface
  10. produce
  11. building
  12. ocean
  13. class
  14. note
  15. nothing
  16. rest
  17. carefully
  18. scientists
  19. inside
  20. wheels

  1. stay
  2. green
  3. known
  4. island
  5. week
  6. less
  7. machine
  8. base
  9. ago
  10. stood
  11. plane
  12. system
  13. behind
  14. ran
  15. round
  16. boat
  17. game
  18. force
  19. brought
  20. understand

  1. warm
  2. common
  3. bring
  4. explain
  5. dry
  6. though
  7. language
  8. shape
  9. deep
  10. thousands
  11. yes
  12. clear
  13. equation
  14. yet
  15. government
  16. filled
  17. heat
  18. full
  19. hot
  20. check

  1. object
  2. am
  3. rule
  4. among
  5. noun
  6. power
  7. cannot
  8. able
  9. six
  10. size
  11. dark
  12. ball
  13. material
  14. special
  15. heavy
  16. fine
  17. pair
  18. circle
  19. include
  20. built

Taken From: The Reading Teachers Book of Lists, Third Edition; by Edward Bernard Fry, Ph.D, Jacqueline E. Kress, Ed.D & Dona Lee Founto\
ukidis, Ed.D.



501- 605 --> Sixth 100 Most Commonly Used English Words





The Sixth 100 Most Commonly Used English Words

Sixth 100 Most Commonly Used English Words

(These most commonly used words are ranked by frequency. The first 25 make up about one-third of all printed material in English. The first \
100 make up about one-half of all written material, and the first 300 make up about sixty-five percent of all written material in English.)





The Sixth Hundred



  1. can't
  2. matter
  3. square
  4. syllables
  5. perhaps
  6. bill
  7. felt
  8. suddenly
  9. test
  10. direction
  11. center
  12. farmers
  13. ready
  14. anything
  15. divided
  16. general
  17. energy
  18. subject
  19. Europe
  20. moon

  1. region
  2. return
  3. believe
  4. dance
  5. members
  6. picked
  7. simple
  8. cells
  9. paint
  10. mind
  11. love
  12. cause
  13. rain
  14. exercise
  15. eggs
  16. train
  17. blue
  18. wish
  19. drop
  20. developed

  1. window
  2. difference
  3. distance
  4. heart
  5. sit
  6. sum
  7. summer
  8. wall
  9. forest
  10. probably
  11. legs
  12. sat
  13. main
  14. winter
  15. wide
  16. written
  17. length
  18. reason
  19. kept
  20. interest

  1. arms
  2. brother
  3. race
  4. resent
  5. beautiful
  6. store
  7. job
  8. edge
  9. past
  10. sign
  11. record
  12. finished
  13. discovered
  14. wild
  15. happy
  16. beside
  17. gone
  18. sky
  19. glass
  20. million

  1. west
  2. lay
  3. weather
  4. root
  5. instruments
  6. meet
  7. third
  8. months
  9. paragraph
  10. raised
  11. represent
  12. soft
  13. whether
  14. chothes
  15. flowers
  16. represent
  17. soft
  18. whether
  19. chothes
  20. flowers
  21. shall
  22. theacher
  23. held
  24. describe
  25. drive

Taken From: The Reading Teachers Book of Lists, Third Edition; by Edward Bernard Fry, Ph.D, Jacqueline E. Kress, Ed.D & Dona Lee Founto\
ukidis, Ed.D.



601 - 700 --> Seventh 100 Most Commonly Used English Words





The Seventh 100 Most Commonly Used English Words

Seventh 100 Most Commonly Used English Words

(These most commonly used words are ranked by frequency. The first 25 make up about one-third of all printed material in English. The first \
100 make up about one-half of all written material, and the first 300 make up about sixty-five percent of all written material in English.)





The Seventh Hundred



  1. cross
  2. speak
  3. solve
  4. appear
  5. metal
  6. son
  7. either
  8. ice
  9. sleep
  10. village
  11. factors
  12. result
  13. jumped
  14. snow
  15. ride
  16. care
  17. floor
  18. hill
  19. pushed
  20. baby

  1. buy
  2. century
  3. outside
  4. everything
  5. tall
  6. already
  7. instead
  8. phrase
  9. soil
  10. bed
  11. copy
  12. free
  13. hope
  14. spring
  15. case
  16. laughed
  17. nation
  18. quite
  19. type
  20. themselves

  1. temperature
  2. bright
  3. lead
  4. everyone
  5. method
  6. section
  7. lake
  8. consonant
  9. within
  10. dictionary
  11. hair
  12. age
  13. amount
  14. scale
  15. pounds
  16. although
  17. per
  18. broken
  19. moment
  20. tiny

  1. possible
  2. gold
  3. milk
  4. quiet
  5. natural
  6. lot
  7. stone
  8. act
  9. build
  10. middle
  11. speed
  12. count
  13. cat
  14. someone
  15. sail
  16. rolled
  17. bear
  18. wonder
  19. smiled
  20. angle

  1. fraction
  2. Africa
  3. killed
  4. melody
  5. bottom
  6. trip
  7. hole
  8. poor
  9. let's
  10. fight
  11. surprise
  12. French
  13. died
  14. beat
  15. exactly

  16. remain
  17. dress
  18. iron
  19. couldn't
  20. fingers

Taken From: The Reading Teachers Book of Lists, Third Edition; by Edward Bernard Fry, Ph.D, Jacqueline E. Kress, Ed.D & Dona Lee Founto\
ukidis, Ed.D.



701 - 800 --> Eighth 100 Most Commonly Used English Words





The Eighth 100 Most Commonly Used English Words

Eighth 100 Most Commonly Used English Words

(These most commonly used words are ranked by frequency. The first 25 make up about one-third of all printed material in English. The first \
100 make up about one-half of all written material, and the first 300 make up about sixty-five percent of all written material in English.)





The Eighth Hundred



  1. row
  2. least
  3. catch
  4. climbed
  5. wrote
  6. shouted
  7. continued
  8. itself
  9. else
  10. plains
  11. gas
  12. England
  13. burning
  14. design
  15. joined
  16. foot
  17. law
  18. ears
  19. grass
  20. you're

  1. grew
  2. skin
  3. valley
  4. cents
  5. key
  6. presidents
  7. brown
  8. trouble
  9. cool
  10. cloud
  11. lost
  12. sent
  13. symbols
  14. wear
  15. bad
  16. save
  17. experiment
  18. engine
  19. alone
  20. drawing


  1. east
  2. pay
  3. signal
  4. touch
  5. information
  6. express
  7. mouth
  8. yard
  9. equal
  10. decimal
  11. yourself
  12. control
  13. practice
  14. report
  15. straight
  16. rise
  17. statement
  18. stick
  19. party
  20. seeds

  1. suppose
  2. woman
  3. coast
  4. bank
  5. period
  6. wire
  7. choose
  8. clean
  9. visit
  10. bit
  11. whose
  12. received
  13. garden
  14. please
  15. strange
  16. caught
  17. fell
  18. team
  19. God
  20. captain

  1. direct
  2. ring
  3. serve
  4. child
  5. desert
  6. increase
  7. history
  8. cost
  9. maybe
  10. business

  11. separate
  12. break
  13. uncle
  14. hunting
  15. flow
  16. lady
  17. students
  18. human
  19. art
  20. feeling

Taken From: The Reading Teachers Book of Lists, Third Edition; by Edward Bernard Fry, Ph.D, Jacqueline E. Kress, Ed.D & Dona Lee Founto\
ukidis, Ed.D.



801 - 900 --> Ninth 100 Most Commonly Used English Words





The Ninth 100 Most Commonly Used English Words

Ninth 100 Most Commonly Used English Words

(These most commonly used words are ranked by frequency. The first 25 make up about one-third of all printed material in English. The first \
100 make up about one-half of all written material, and the first 300 make up about sixty-five percent of all written material in English.)





The Ninth Hundred



  1. supply
  2. corner
  3. electric
  4. insects
  5. crops
  6. tone
  7. hit
  8. sand
  9. doctor
  10. provide
  11. thus
  12. won't
  13. cook
  14. bones
  15. tail
  16. board
  17. modern
  18. compound
  19. mine
  20. wasn't

  1. fit
  2. addition
  3. belong
  4. safe
  5. soldiers
  6. guess
  7. silent
  8. trade
  9. rather
  10. compare
  11. crowd
  12. poem
  13. enjoy
  14. elements
  15. indicate
  16. except
  17. expect
  18. flat
  19. seven
  20. interest

  1. sense
  2. string
  3. blow
  4. famous
  5. value
  6. wings
  7. movement
  8. pole
  9. exciting
  10. branches
  11. thick
  12. blood
  13. lie
  14. spot
  15. bell
  16. fun
  17. loud
  18. consider
  19. suggested
  20. thin

  1. position
  2. entered
  3. fruit
  4. tied
  5. rich
  6. dollars
  7. send
  8. sight
  9. chief
  10. Japanese
  11. stream
  12. plants
  13. rhythm
  14. eight
  15. science
  16. major
  17. observe
  18. tube
  19. necessary
  20. weight

  1. meat
  2. lifted
  3. process
  4. army
  5. hat
  6. property
  7. particular
  8. swim
  9. terms
  10. current
  11. park
  12. sell
  13. shoulder
  14. industry
  15. wash

  16. block
  17. spread
  18. cattle
  19. wife
  20. sharp

Taken From: The Reading Teachers Book of Lists, Third Edition; by Edward Bernard Fry, Ph.D, Jacqueline E. Kress, Ed.D & Dona Lee Founto\
ukidis, Ed.D.



901 - 1000 --> Tenth 100 Most Commonly Used English Words





The Tenth 100 Most Commonly Used English Words

Tenth 100 Most Commonly Used English Words

(These most commonly used words are ranked by frequency. The first 25 make up about one-third of all printed material in English. The first \
100 make up about one-half of all written material, and the first 300 make up about sixty-five percent of all written material in English.)





The Tenth Hundred



  1. company
  2. radio
  3. we'll
  4. action
  5. capital
  6. factories
  7. settled
  8. yellow
  9. isn't
  10. southern
  11. truck
  12. train
  13. printed
  14. wouldn't
  15. ahead
  16. chance
  17. born
  18. level
  19. triangle
  20. molecules

  1. France
  2. repeated
  3. column
  4. western
  5. church
  6. sister
  7. oxygen
  8. plural
  9. various
  10. agreed
  11. opposite
  12. wrong
  13. chart
  14. prepared
  15. pretty
  16. solution
  17. fresh
  18. shop
  19. suffix
  20. especially

  1. shoes
  2. actually
  3. nose
  4. afraid
  5. dead
  6. sugar
  7. adjective
  8. fig
  9. office
  10. huge
  11. gun
  12. similar
  13. death
  14. score
  15. forward
  16. stretched
  17. experience
  18. rose
  19. allow
  20. fear

  1. workers
  2. Washington
  3. Greek
  4. women
  5. brought
  6. led
  7. march
  8. northern
  9. create
  10. British
  11. difficult
  12. match
  13. win
  14. doesn't
  15. steel
  16. total
  17. deal
  18. determine
  19. evening
  20. nor

  1. rope
  2. cotton
  3. apple
  4. details
  5. entire
  6. corn
  7. substances
  8. smell
  9. tools
  10. conditions
  11. cows
  12. track
  13. arrived
  14. located
  15. sir

    LI>seat

  16. division
  17. effect
  18. underline
  19. view

Taken From: The Reading Teachers Book of Lists, Third Edition; by Edward Bernard Fry, Ph.D, Jacqueline E. Kress, Ed.D & Dona Lee Founto\
ukidis, Ed.D.



Historical Tidbits

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Historical Tidbits

Historical Tidbits

 

Black
College Firsts

 

  • style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt'>Lincoln University
    in Southern Chester County, Pennsylvania is the oldest Black institution
    of higher learning. A Presbyterian
    minister named John Miller Dickey founded it in 1854. style="mso-spacerun: yes"> He had become frustrated because he
    could not get Ralston Amos, the treasurer of the national African
    Methodist Episcopal church, admitted into Princeton University Seminary or
    at a Presbyterian religious academy.

 

  • style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt'>Wilberforce University
    in Ohio was the first institution of higher learning founded by
    Blacks. The national African
    Methodist Episcopal church purchased it in 1862 and merged it with the
    A.M.E. Union Seminary a year later.

 

  • style='font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt'>Tuskegee Institute (now
    University) was founded in Tuskegee, Alabama in 1881. It first
    opened as the Tuskegee Normal School with Booker T. Washington as its

    first principal. White teachers
    would not or were not expected to work under a Black man. style="mso-spacerun: yes"> Therefore, Tuskegee became the first
    Black institution of higher learning with an all Black faculty.

 

(See Jubilee: The Emergence of African-American
Culture
, edited by Howard Dodson, pp. 155, 169–161)

 

 

 





Learning and the Language Dilemma

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Learning and the Language Dilemma

Learning and the Language Dilemma

By Leon Dixon (1995)

 

After having worked with style='mso-spacerun:yes'> young people since 1973 at the W.E.B. DuBois
Learning Center, where volunteers have been helping students with their basic
skills, especially reading, I have come to realize that there are certain
aspects of language that have an influence on learning that many of us do not
seem to fully appreciate.

 

For one: each of us has our
own style of language. And if a certain number of us have enough language
similarities in common, then we collectively share a dialect. style='mso-spacerun:yes'>
Every one of us thinks, feels, and imagines
in our own dialect. Textbooks and most
other sources of information are presented in Standard English (SE). style='mso-spacerun:yes'> Whenever we receive information in that form,
we must translate it into our dialect. A
problem that occurs is that most of us do not realize that this is taking
place. If our personal language usage is
close enough to SE, then this translation is done with enough ease so as not to
cause any problems.

 

Another thing: each
discipline has its own language with its own nuances. style='mso-spacerun:yes'>
All of which are couched in SE. style='mso-spacerun:yes'> I have noticed that when some young people
read their lessons, they can literally read (i.e. pronounce) the words, but
they often do not understand what is being expressed. style='mso-spacerun:yes'> They are trying to use the “rules” of their
dialect to interpret the SE of the text.
This is especially noticeable in the natural sciences and
mathematics.

 

A technique that I have
successfully employed in overcoming this hurdle is to work with the young
people to help them understand the concepts in their own dialect. style='mso-spacerun:yes'>
Once they are able to satisfactorily explain
the concepts to me, using their own words, I proceed to explain to them how it
is expressed in SE. And I also help them
understand the problems that they are running into with their language
usage. It needs to be explained to them
that their dialect usage has its place and is all right in its “proper”
setting. But in the worlds of academia
and work, SE is the norm. They have to
be bi-dialectal!

 

A cultural point: in American
culture, as opposed to some others, children are given names with little or no
thought given to their meanings. And
many people live their lives without associating names of things and terms with
anything descriptive. This means they
re relying too heavily on rote memory.
And they suffer the consequences as characterized by the line in a
popular rap song that says, “My mind’s playing tricks on me.” style='mso-spacerun:yes'>
In academic disciplines, the understanding of
terminology is essential in grasping and internalizing concepts. style='mso-spacerun:yes'> Again, this can be very significant in
science and mathematics.

 

American youths are going to
have to compete in the twenty-first century and the coming Information Age with
young people throughout the world. If
they are to do this successfully, then our educators and caregivers are going
to have to do a better job in repairing them to handle these dilemmas of
language that have to do with the difficulty of translating from a community
dialect to Standard English.

Shaping the Brains of Tomorrow

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Shaping the Brains of Tomorrow



style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial'> href="http://www.prospect.org/web/%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%2\
0%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20/web/view-print.ww?id=8775"> style='mso-bidi-font-size:7.0pt;color:#333333;text-decoration:none;
text-underline:none'>Shaping the Brains of Tomorrow


What developmental science teaches about the
importance of investing early in children.

style='font-size:16.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:6.5pt;font-family:Arial;
color:#333333'>By href="http://www.prospect.org/web/%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20/web/page.ww?name=View+Author&section=root&id=1164">Ross
A. Thompson

From “The American Prospect Online,” Nov 1, 2004. style='mso-bidi-font-size:6.5pt;font-family:Arial;color:#333333'> Issue
Date: 11.02.04

What would happen if the best minds in the country concluded
that investments in early-childhood development are necessary and
cost-effective? That the early years present an opportunity, unequaled later
in life, to enhance inborn potential and avert harm? What if they could
identify the “active ingredients” of healthy psychological development, and
how to enhance these in young children growing up in deprived conditions?
Wouldn’t society become mobilized to do its best for young children?

We are in this situation today, and the arguments for
investing in early-childhood development are scientific, not political. As
the result of several blue-ribbon studies of the forces shaping young
children’s growth, developmental scientists today agree on some basic
conclusions: The early years are important. Early relationships matter. All
children are born ready to learn, both intellectually and socially. Even in
infancy, children are active participants in their own development,
together with the adults who care for them. Early experience can elucidate,
or diminish, inborn potential. The early years are a period of considerable
opportunity for growth and vulnerability to harm.

What we do with this knowledge will shape the lives of the
next generation.

Development in the Early Years style='mso-bidi-font-size:6.5pt;color:#333333'>

Developmental psychologists and neurobiologists agree that the developing
mind is astonishingly active and self-organizing, creating new knowledge
from everyday experiences. Newborns crave novelty and become bored with
familiarity, so their eyes, ears, and other sensory organs are attuned to
events from which they can learn. A few months later, the infant mentally
clusters objects together that are similar in shape, texture, or density, and
explores gravity and causality as crackers are dropped from the high chair.
A toddler categorizes faces, animals, and birds according to their
properties, and by age 3 or 4, children make logical inferences about new
members of a group, such as appreciating that a dolphin breathes like the
mammal it is rather than the fish it resembles. Just as the developing
brain is expanding its interconnections, the developing mind is making
connections between the new knowledge it discovers and creates.

The remarkable intellectual accomplishments of the early
years extend to language development. Newborns have an innate capacity to
differentiate speech sounds that are used in all the world’s languages,
even those they have never heard and which their parents cannot discriminate.
But later in the first year they lose this ability as they become
perceptually attuned to the language they will learn. By age 3, a child is
forming simple sentences, mastering grammar, and experiencing a “vocabulary
explosion” that will result, by age 6, in a lexicon of more than 10,000
words. Equally important, language will enable the child to put developing
ideas and concepts into words that he or she can share with another, revolutionizing his or her thought by gaining access to the concepts,
ideas, and values of others.

Sensitive caregiving -- not educational toys or Mozart CDs
-- provides the most essential catalysts for these feats of intellectual
growth. People are critical to the development of the mind: Newborns attend
in a special way to human faces and voices, toddlers learn new words based
on their interest in the intentions of adult speakers, and memory develops
through the shared recounting of everyday events. Relationships stimulate
the mind and provide the emotional incentives to new learning as young
children share their discoveries with another. This is why promoting school
readiness is not simply a matter of encouraging literacy and number skills.
It must also ensure the secure, unhurried, focused attention from sensitive
caregivers that contributes to the growth of curiosity, the eagerness to
discover, self-confidence, and cooperation.

Healthy brain development relies on people to provide the
stimulation that organizes connections in the cortex for language and
complex thought. It also relies on people to protect the baby from
overwhelming stress, manage the child’s emotions, and promote security.
This is why strong attachments between infants and their caregivers are as biologically basic as learning to crawl and walk. Throughout evolution,
attachment relationships have ensured human survival by keeping infants
protected and nurtured. By their first birthday, infants have developed
deep attachments to those who care for them. And these attachments, in
turn, provide a foundation for positive relationships with peers and
teachers, healthy self-concept, and emotional and moral understanding.

In the absence of nurturing relationships, things can go
wrong. It isn’t surprising to find that insecure attachments develop more frequently
in homes where parents are stressed or depressed, or in chaotic child-care
settings. Even more disturbing is research demonstrating how early children
show signs of depression, conduct problems, social withdrawal, and anxiety
disorders, and how closely these problems are tied to the quality of the
parent-child relationship. These studies show that relationships with
caregivers who are neglectful, physically abusive, or emotionally troubled
can predispose young children to psychopathology. So the importance of
these earliest relationships is a double-edged sword: Sensitive caregiving
underpins healthy development, while markedly inadequate care renders young
children vulnerable to harm.

Relationships also influence the growth of social and
emotional understanding. Far from being egocentric, young children are
fascinated by what goes on in others’ minds, and social experiences are the
laboratory in which these discoveries emerge. A 2-year-old whose hand
inches closer to the forbidden VCR while carefully watching her parent’s
face, for example, is testing the adult’s expected reaction. And a
3-year-old whose roughhousing has resulted in a crying younger sibling
learns from an adult about the connections between exuberant running and
inadvertent collisions, enhancing his or her emotional understanding and
empathy.

From Mind to Brain -- and Back Again style='mso-bidi-font-size:6.5pt;color:#333333'>

Whether we are concerned with the growth of the mind or the person, all of
these remarkable early achievements take place in the developing brain.
Brain development begins within the first month after conception, and by
the sixth prenatal month, nearly all of the billions of neurons that
populate the mature brain have been created. This means that the quality of
prenatal care, particularly the mother’s nutrition, health, and exposure to
dangerous viruses and drugs, can have a profound effect on the developing
brain of her fetus. Health, nutrition, and drug exposure continue to
influence brain development after birth.

Both before and after birth, there is an initial “blooming”
of connections between neurons, creating a brain densely packed with many
more neural pathways than it needs. This proliferation is followed by a
period of “pruning” in which little-used connections gradually erode to
reach the number required for optimal efficiency. Experience is the central
determinant of which neural pathways are retained or disappear. The early
experiences that sculpt the developing brain can be stimulating or
neglectful, supportive or traumatic, secure or stressful. Through a “use it
or lose it” principle, those neurons that aren’t activated through
experience progressively wither. Language exposure, for example, helps to
account for the transition from the newborn’s capacity to perceive
universal speech sounds to the 1-year-old’s language-specific speech
perception. Developmental neuroscientists offer similar accounts to explain
the early development of vision, memory ability, early categorization and
thinking skills, and emotional development.

Brain development is an extended process -- not limited to a
narrow “window of opportunity” between zero and three, as conventional
wisdom sometimes suggests. Neural connections in areas of the brain guiding
higher forms of thinking and reasoning grow and atrophy into early adolescence,
for example, and the adult brain even creates new neurons in certain
regions governing memory. Brain architecture continues to be subtly refined
throughout life in ways that reflect the individualized, everyday
experiences of the person. The brain of a musician who plays a stringed
instrument, for example, differs from the brain of a poet who works with
words and abstract ideas because they have exercised different brain
regions throughout life.

Despite these exciting discoveries, neuroscientists are
still at the early stages of understanding how experience refines the
brain. They are concerned with how early deprivation (such as that
experienced by orphans from Romania and the former Soviet Union), abuse,
and trauma influence early brain growth, and whether these effects can be
altered. They are also studying how relational problems, such as the
challenges faced by an infant of a depressed mother, influence brain
development.

Investing in Young Children style='mso-bidi-font-size:6.5pt;color:#333333'>

These and other conclusions from a landmark study of the National Academy
of Sciences, From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development, underscore the importance of early experiences
for development throughout life.

What about children, then, who live in deprived or high-risk
conditions? Considerable research shows that many of them will lag
intellectually from infancy and will suffer deficiencies in various facets
of healthy psychological development. Poverty significantly compromises
healthy intellectual and socioemotional development, for example, and
poverty during early childhood is more powerfully predictive of later
achievement than is poverty at any later stage. The reasons include
stressed caregivers, troubled parent-child relationships, dangerous
neighborhoods, and inadequate schools and community supports.

Can early interventions improve the odds of healthy
development for children at risk? The answer offered by the committee of
scientists that wrote From Neurons to Neighborhoods is both
optimistic and challenging. The good news is that there are successful
strategies, especially programs that emphasize child-focused educational
activities and parent-child interaction, and are governed by specific
practices matched to clear goals. But the most effective interventions are
rarely simple, inexpensive, or easy to implement. Changing the rarely simple, inexpensive, or easy to implement. Changing the
developmental trajectory of a young child growing up in deprived
circumstances requires determination, persistence, and patience.

Are such interventions cost-effective? Determining the
cost-effectiveness of programs for at-risk young children requires putting
price tags on the innumerable human consequences of early deprivation. Yet
several studies of comprehensive early-intervention efforts have found that
program costs are more than compensated by averted costs of educational
remediation, juvenile or adult crime, and diminished job earnings.

While expensive, large-scale public efforts have been
skeptically regarded by policy-makers most concerned about their costs,
important new voices are emerging in support of these investments. One is
that of James Heckman, Nobel laureate and University of Chicago economist,
who argues that the varied benefits of early-childhood interventions -- in
cognitive learning, motivation, and socialization -- are likely to have
long-term advantages in the labor market because of the cumulative effects
of early improvements in ability. Another is that of Art Rolnick of the
Federal Reserve Bank in Minneapolis, who (along with colleague Rob
Grunewald) estimates that public investments in programs to assist poor
children yield a 16-percent real rate of return. This, he argues, compares very favorably to other public investments with more popular appeal, such
as building sports coliseums, which typically have little or no return on
public investment. Although much more research is needed, it appears that
society’s investment in improving the chances for young children at risk is
economically worthwhile.

The views of economists like these shift the debate about
public efforts to support healthy early development. And they join the
chorus of scientists whose work has consistently shown how much
early-childhood experiences and relationships matter. It is now reasonable
to ask why public policy lags so significantly behind the science and
economics of early-childhood development.

The public policies that would support healthy
early-childhood development are child-friendly and family-friendly. They
include:

  • child-care
    policies that ensure widespread access to affordable, high-quality child care;

  • welfare-reform
    policies that enable parents to integrate work and family
    responsibilities constructively in children’s interests;

  • prenatal
    and postnatal health care that screens children for developmental
    difficulties before they become severe, guarantees adequate nutrition,
    provides early visual and auditory screening, and protects young
    children from debilitating diseases and hazardous exposure to
    environmental toxins.

In the end, because children are society’s most
valuable asset, they are also a social responsibility and investment.
Because the science of early-childhood development converges with the
economics of public policy to confirm that investments in early-childhood
development are both necessary and worthwhile, it is long past time for
society to catch up.

Ross A. Thompson
is a developmental psychologist at the University of California, Davis and
a member of the National
Scientific Council on the Developing Child
.
style='mso-bidi-font-size:6.5pt;color:#333333'>

Copyright © 2004 by The American Prospect, Inc. Preferred Citation: Ross A. Thompson, "Shaping the Brains of Tomorrow", The American Prospect Online, Nov 1, 2004. This article may not be resold, reprinted, or redistributed for compensation of any kind without prior written permission from the author. Direct questions about permissions to permissions@prospect.org.

 

 

The Most Frequently Misspelled English Words





The First 100 Most Commonly Used English Words

The Most Frequently Misspelled English Words






  1. a cappella
  2. absence
  3. accommodation
  4. according
  5. achievement
  6. activities
  7. administrator
  8. advertisement
  9. advice
  10. adviser
  11. advisory
  12. agriculture
  13. all right
  14. a lot
  15. already
  16. among
  17. anesthesia
  18. angel
  19. angle
  20. annual
  21. apparel
  22. appreciate
  23. approximately
  24. architect
  25. article
  26. assembly
  27. athlete
  28. athletic
  29. attendance
  30. auditorium

  1. author
  2. barbecue
  3. battalion
  4. believe
  5. benefit
  6. bookkeeping
  7. boy's
  8. boys'
  9. business
  10. calendar
  11. character
  12. chosen
  13. coming
  14. committee
  15. congratulations
  16. conscience
  17. conscious
  18. convenient
  19. counselor
  20. curriculum
  21. develop
  22. disappoint
  23. distinguished
  24. duchess
  25. editorial
  26. eighth
  27. eligible
  28. embarrassing
  29. emphasize
  30. emphatic

  1. ensemble
  2. environment
  3. experience
  4. faculty
  5. familiar
  6. February
  7. finally
  8. foreign
  9. formally
  10. formerly
  11. fourth
  12. friend
  13. government
  14. grammar
  15. gymnasium
  16. illustration
  17. independent
  18. initiated
  19. interest
  20. intramural
  21. judgment
  22. laboratory
  23. led
  24. library
  25. license
  26. literature
  27. misspelled
  28. necessary
  29. nickel
  30. occurrence

  1. opinion
  2. organization
  3. pantomime
  4. pastime
  5. privilege
  6. probably
  7. questionnaire
  8. receive
  9. recommend
  10. renaissance
  11. restaurant
  12. rhythm
  13. schedule
  14. separate
  15. sergeant
  16. similar
  17. sophomore
  18. sponsor
  19. studying
  20. sufficient
  21. superintendent
  22. surprised
  23. thought
  24. treasurer
  25. truly
  26. until
  27. Wednesday
  28. weird
  29. writer
  30. writing